Monday, June 3, 2019

Diet and Nutrition Case Study

Diet and Nutrition Case StudyWarda Abdulkadir AhmedDiet and DigestionTAQ 1)3 day repast conception for meaning(a) motherThis meal plan for an expectant mother was designed as firstly the calorie intake needful daily is increased to supply the placenta and growing baby the required energy to grow healthily. An estimated 300 more calories in the second and third trimesters. I devote chosen foods high in iron and folic acid as these are needed in abundance by both mother and baby. A pregnant woman needs 60mg of protein and 1200mg of calcium I have sought to incorporate this finished lean servings of heart and fish daily as well as porridge oats with milk.Three day meal plan for elderly male patientNutrition is an important determinant of health in an elderly person. I chose this meal plan as the meals are low in red-hot, refined sugar and sodium, and high in essential nutrients such as fibre, vitamins and minerals. Following this meal plan helps the individual avoid gout, stroke, high rakehell pressure, heart disease arthritis, cancer, respiratory disorders, and difficulty in passing stools, obesity and type 2 diabetes. One major concern in an elderly person is obtaining sufficient fluid intake.3 day meal plan for Teenage AthleteCase in doom average height and weight of 17 year old male to be 510 and 10 st onenesss/63 kg This body slew index falls in the 50th percentile of the mean averageTaking into account average male calorific requirement (2500 calories), this is to be exceeded by around 35 65 % based on exceeded average energy expenditure for athletic performance/training as well as a general faster metabolic rate for a teenage male opposed to a mature male. The meal plan incorporates 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day and a higher than average protein content mostly made up of chicken and fish and only one portion of red meat as to reach the protein threshold from a higher proportion of red meat is deemed generally as unhealthy, causing e t rulyplace a long stop consonant higher personal line of credit pressure and increased risk of endure and bowel cancer. Due to the athletic activities to be undertaken there is an emphasis on consuming fluids and an spare and varied selection of carbohydrates is consumed daily. The pabulum is low in saturated fat and sugarTAQ 2)Type 2 diabetes can result from an inadequate diet, an inadequate diet can be defined as a deficiency, and a deficiency can be too great or too little of one specific food group in a healthy diet. Too much sugar in a persons diet is a major factor in contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. Specifically sucrose, sucrose and sugar are not actually required by the body so their consumption can be deemed as a deficiency in itself. Furthermore the excess consumption of sugar can entice to an increase in weight and obesity which in turn increases the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. Higher than normal blood glucose levels cumulatively over a long period leads to insulin resistance.Atherosclerosis, the clogging of the arteries can be a secondary effect of having type 2 diabetes but in most cases is caused by too high a fat content in ones diet, more specifically consuming too much saturated fat often found in processed foods and a insufficiency of unsaturated fats with high density lipids and beneficial cholesterol lowering effect on the body. A diet with a frequency of fruit and vegetables has a negating effect as well as oily fish, nuts and seeds, sunflower and seed oils.Rickets is normally caused by a lack of vitamin D and/or calcium. Physiologically most of our vitamin D comes from sunlight not our food and the process of calcium absorption is very dependent on vitamin D levels in the body. However we do garner some vitamin D from food. Eggs, oily fish and cereals are all good sources of vitamin D and deficiencies in these food types regardless of UV exposure could contribute to the onset of rickets. Milk and oth er dairy products have the highest calcium content and a lack of dairy as well as green vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage can have a detrimental effect on calcium uptake in the body.TAQ 3)Digestion is necessary as it breaks down the size of food to make digestion a more efficient process food is lowly down into smaller constituent parts so the surface area for the active sites for enzymes to occur increases. Proteins are worried down into peptides, which are then broken down into single amino acids that allow absorption into the bloodstream through the small intestine. Absorption occurs when the food enters the body as the food molecules pass through a layer of cells and into the bodies tissues. This occurs in the small intestine which has many villi that are specialised for absorption. Assimilation occurs when the food molecules becomes part of the bodies tissue.b)TAQ 5)The digestive tract, consisting of the stomach, small and large intestines. The stomach is made of three layers of smooth muscle fibres, an outer layer of longitudinal fibres middle layer of flyer fibres and an inner layer of oblique muscle fibres. This brass allows for the churning effect of stomachic activity.When the stomach is empty the mucous membrane lining is thrown into folds or rugae when the stomach has contents these folds are ironed out.Numerous gastric glands are situated below the surface in the mucuous membrane.The small intestine also has layers,the peritoneum is a double layer and connects the jejunum and ileum to the abdominal wall.The attatchment is short and fan shaped,large blood vessels and nerves pass between the two layers.Their is also a mucousa present here it contains villi and microvill it has a large surface area and many folds.Their are circular folds which act to mix chyme,the villi in this mucousal layer contibute to final stages of digestion.There are also lymph nodes within the mucousa which release defense cells against ingested antigens.The large intestine also has a mucosa made of simple columnar epithelial tissue. The mucosa is smooth, unlike the small intestine lacks villi however it does have a large number of mucous glands secreting mucous secretion into the hollow lumen as to lubricate the surface of the large intestine and protect it from rough food particles. Surrounding the mucosa is a layer of blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue, the submucosa, which is there to support the other layers of the large intestine.The muscularis layer surrounds the submucosa and contains many layers of visceral muscle cells that contract and move the large intestine.Finally, the serosa forms the outmost layer. The serosa is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial tissue that secretes watery serous fluid to lubricate the surface of the large intestine. protecting it from detrition between abdominal organs and the surrounding muscles and bones of the lower torso.ReferencesGerard J. Tortola, Mark Nielsen Principles of Human manikin, 13th Edition December 2013 2014http// Last accessed 10/03/2015John Evans, Alison Lansley and Michael J. Sanderson, (2006), biological science A levelRichard Parsons (2010) AS/A2 Level Biology AQA Complete Revision PracticeSmith, A. (2012). Get instant biology help. Available http// Last accessed 05/03/2015Waugh, Anne and Grant, Allison (2006) Ross and Wilson Anatomy and physiology in health and illness. (10th edition). Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

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